Category Archive: Law & History

Nov 04

Great Lakes-Lake Superior


Last, but certainly not least, Lake Superior, the largest lake by surface area of the five Great Lakes of Northern America. Lake Superior is fed by over 200 rivers, and pours into Lake Huron via the St Mary’s River and the Soo Locks. As the largest freshwater lake (by volume) on the North American continent, …

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Oct 07

Great Lakes-Lake Michigan

Lake Michigan

This week we’re looking at Lake Michigan, the only one of the Great Lakes that is located entirely within the United States. The lake touches the U.S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, and Michigan. It has a surface area of 22,400 square miles making it the largest lake entirely within one country by surface area, and the fifth largest lake in the world. It …

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Oct 02

Chromium 6 Impact

In our previous post on the CA Chromium 6 proposal, we shared that CDPH has officially proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level of .01-milligrams per liter. The proposal is open for public comment, and the public is beginning to do just that.   In Riverside County, the Board of Supervisors met on Tuesday to discuss the effects …

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Sep 10

Great Lakes-Lake Huron


Lake Huron is the second-largest of the Great Lakes of North America, with a surface area of 23,000 square miles, making it the third-largest fresh water lake on Earth by surface area. It is bounded on the east by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the west by the state of Michigan in the United States. Lake Huron boasts over 30,000 islands, and at least 25 …

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Sep 09

CA Chromium-6 Standard Open for Comment


California has been waiting for the last 2 years for news of a new drinking water regulation. At last, after the predictions and the pools in various labs and water district offices across the state, the books are closed and the verdict’s in: CDPH has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of .01-milligrams per liter …

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May 21

Great Lakes-Lake Erie

Today we begin a six-part series on the Great Lakes of North America, starting with Lake Erie. Lake Erie’s name comes from the Erie tribe, a shortened form of the Iroquoian word erielhonan, which means “long tail.”   Lake Erie is the fourth largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes.  It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume of the Great Lakes and therefore …

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May 20

Filtration: Then and Now

Last week we posted about the history of filtration in Water Treatment. The first recognized instance of filtering water was credited to Hippocrates roughly 2,500 years ago, with the introduction of more and more filtering options added as civilization moved on to bigger and better scientific discoveries.   Today marks the 98th anniversary of a Rapid Sand …

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May 16

Summary of the Clean Water Act

The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the cornerstone of surface water quality protection in the United States. The basis of the CWA was enacted in 1948, and was called the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. This Act was expanded, restructured and reorganized in 1972 with the “Clean Water Act” we have today. The CWA as we know …

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May 14

Wastewater Treatment-Secondary and Tertiary Treatment


In our last post on Wastewater Treatment, we covered Pretreatment and Primary Treatment. Today we’ll finish off the treatment process with Secondary and Tertiary Treatment.   Secondary treatment is designed to substantially degrade the biological content of the sewage which are derived from human waste, food waste, soaps and detergent. The majority of municipal plants treat …

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May 13

Filters-A Short History


Water filtration is an important part of the treatment process. A water filter removes impurities from water by means of a fine physical barrier, a chemical process or a biological process. Filters use sieving, adsorption, ion exchanges, and other processes to remove impurities. Unlike a sieve or screen, a filter can remove particles much smaller than the holes through which the water passes. Modern-day treatment plants use …

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